Students with Disabilities Resulting from Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, and Dyscalculia
New York State (NYS) Commissioner’s Regulations define learning disability to mean a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which manifests itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, as determined in accordance with section 200.4(j).
The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of an intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage.
DYSLEXIA A condition affecting reading skills often characterized by difficulties in areas including (but not limited to) phonological processing, decoding, fluency, and/or spelling
DYSGRAPHIA A condition impacting writing skills often characterized by difficulties in areas including (but not limited to) legibility and automaticity
DYSCALCULIA A condition impacting math skills often characterized by difficulties in areas including (but not limited to) working memory, spatial/quantity concepts impacting number sense, and symbol recognition/use
Chapter 216 of the Laws of 2017, signed by the Governor in August 2017, amends New York State Education Law to include provisions for the New York State Education Department (NYSED), in cooperation with stakeholders to issue guidance on the unique educational needs of students with dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia and to clarify that school districts may reference or use the terms dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia in evaluations, eligibility determinations, or in developing an individualized education program under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Consistent with Chapter 216, a statewide group of stakeholders representing various perspectives and constituencies related to the education of students with dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia was convened to advise NYSED on the unique educational needs of such students. Additionally, online surveys related to the education of students with learning disabilities resulting from dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia were disseminated statewide to special education administrators, educators and providers, and families. Results of the surveys and input from our stakeholder group informed the development of the following guidance documents related to students with dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia.